Please note: This page is unfinished and still contains references to the Citra emulator and the Nintendo 3ds!
INTEFIRE PCIe Sound Card 5.1 Internal Sound Card for PC Windows 10 7 8 with Low Profile Bracket, 3D Stereo PCI-e Audio Card, 32/64 Bit PCI Express Sound Card CMI8738 Chip (Driver Need Download) 3.6 out of 5 stars 89. Under the sound private dir is: voice/XX/.m4a. Where XX is 01-10, with sound saved as.m4a. Other Private Data. There is also a directory called 'private' on the root of the SD card that contains data, in which would otherwise be completely different from what the Nintendo 3DS normally uses, but known to the application itself.
The User Directory
yuzu’s user directory is where the emulator persists the emulated Switchs NAND, save data, extra data, and a host of other files necessary for yuzu to run properly. The path of the user directory varies on different systems:
- on Windows, the path is
C:/Users/[your-user-name]/AppData/Roaming/yuzu/. Note that the folder
AppDatais hidden by default, so you need to change the configuration to view it.
- in old version of yuzu, the user directory used to be the
userfolder in the same directory as the yuzu executable.
- in old version of yuzu, the user directory used to be the
- on macOS and Linux, the path is
~/.local/share/yuzu-emu/. Note that the folder
.localis hidden on most machines, so you need to change the configuration to view it. Additionally, the
configfolder is located in
There are at least three directories within the user directory:
sdmc. For users that have dumped the shared fonts from a Switch console, there will also be a
sysdata directory. See below for details about each directory and what data is stored within.
Diagram of yuzu’s User Directory
Dumping files from a Switch
Included in this guide are instructions on how to dump various files from a Switch console to put into the yuzu user directory. These files are optional in terms of yuzu’s ability to run, but depending on certain circumstances some may be required in order to run a particular game or get past a certain point in the game. In general, dumping files from a Switch will require an SD card reader or some way to use wireless file transfer from a Switch to a computer like the FTP System Module or the FTPd Homebrew and that the Switch being dumped from has Custom Firmware installed.Optionally, more advanced users can use HacDiskMount to access a NAND Backup instead of accessing the Switch directly.
If the below articles are too wordy, consult the below tutorials for obtaining optional files to improve the yuzu experience:
This directory contains files containing information that tell yuzu how to run. These files are in plain text and thus are fully editable and contain configurations for mapping controls, which [CPU]] and audio engine to use, rendering and other visual options, the [Log Filters, which region the emulated Switch belongs to, whether to treat the emulated Switch as a new Switch, and whether to insert a virtual SD card into the emulated system.
Changing these files is only to be done by advanced users because making changes at random can cause yuzu not to work as expected or at all. The yuzu executable has options menus that allow users to change most of the aforementioned configurations safely. If yuzu has trouble running after changing a file and the user cannot remember what they changed, delete the configuration files and run the executable again so that they are regenerated automatically (albeit as though yuzu is being run for the first time so any existing configurations are lost).
This directory contains
yuzu_log.txt. This file is automatically generated by yuzu and stores the logging. It is overwritten every time yuzu is launched.
This directory is the emulated Switch system NAND. It does not match an actual console’s NAND exactly due to differences between yuzu and a physical Switch. This directory will contain the
data directory and potentially also the system archives.
This directory is automatically generated by yuzu and contains the system and extra data for the emulated NAND. Inside this directory is another directory,
00000000000000000000000000000000. On a physical Switch, the directory inside
data would be named differently. Its name would be 32 characters long and made of hexadecimal characters (0-9 and A-F) instead of it being all 0’s like yuzu. This knowledge is only important if you plan on dumping any NAND system data or extra data from a physical Switch and associating it with yuzu. The
00000000000000000000000000000000 contains two folders,
extdata, containing NAND extra data, and
sysdata, containing NAND system save data.
System save data is identified by a title ID, separated into TID High, the first 8 characters of the title ID, and TID Low, the last 8 characters of the title ID. Most system save data has a TID high of 00000000. An individual piece of system save data is stored in
sysdata/[TID Low]/[TID High]. For details about the different kinds of system save data, see 3dbrew. For first-time yuzu users, there may be nothing inside the
sysdata directory. In fact this will be the case for most yuzu users, and is nothing to be alarmed about. This data will be created automatically in some cases, such as when a Mii is saved in Mii Maker. Almost none of this data is essential for yuzu to run homebrew games or backups of licensed titles.
There is one notable exception to the last statement. yuzu requires a dump of a physical Switch’s config savegame in order to run a small number of games. Follow the instructions located at Dumping Config Savegame from a Switch Console to obtain the config savegame from a Switch console.
Other system save data aside from the config savegame can be dumped from a Switch console by an expert user and placed in the
sysdata folder. At this time, though, many features that read from or write to system save data have not been implemented so there is currently little value in doing so. See this discussion topic for more details about dumping system save data.
NAND extra data always has a TID High of 00048000, so the
extdata directory should contain a
00048000 folder, though it has been observed in yuzu that there may be a
00000000 folder instead, and users have reported issues if there is both a
00048000 folder contained therein, so it is advised to delete the
00000000 folder if that is the case. Inside the folder may be nothing, or it may contain one or more directories named
F000000#, where # can be the characters A-F or the numbers 0-9. Each of these folders corresponds to a TID low, which can be used to identify the type of extra data stored therein. See 3dbrew for details about the different kinds of extra data stored in NAND.
At this point in time, it is possible to dump extra data from a physical Switch’s NAND using a save manager like JKSM and to place it in the
extdata directory, but doing so is entirely optional and yuzu does not currently emulate NAND features that utilize most of this extra data.
This folder, named
00000000000000000000000000000000, will only exist if the system archives have been dumped from a physical Switch. The system archives are required for some games to work with yuzu. To obtain the system archives, follow the instructions located at Dumping System Archives and the Shared Fonts from a Switch Console.
This directory is the equivalent of the SD card inserted into a physical Switch, which stores game save and extra data and any titles installed to the SD card in encrypted format, though yuzu does not currently emulate installing titles to SD and instead runs decrypted .Switch, .app, and .cxi files directly from the computer’s filesystem. Inside the
sdmc folder, just like on a real Switch console, is a
Nintendo Switch directory, which contains two more directories,
Private directory on a real Switch contains camera data (in
00020400/phtcache.bin) and sound data (in
00020500/voice/...). yuzu will create camera data while it is running. If a user wants to copy their camera and sound data to yuzu, they can do so easily by copying the
Private folder from their SD card and overwriting yuzu’s, but at this time there is no value in doing so.
This directory contains another directory of the same name, and inside of that is where game saves (in the
title directory) and extra data (in the
extdata directory) can be found. On a real SD card, there would not be two
00000000000000000000000000000000 folders, but instead the folders would be named as hexadecimal characters corresponding to a Switch console ID. If a user wishes to extract save or extra data from their physical console, they do not need to worry about the console ID not matching yuzu’s
If any games have been saved while playing them with yuzu, there should be a folder inside
00040000. This folder contains all of the save data for Switch titles. It is entirely possible to retrieve save data from an SD card using a physical Switch console and import it into yuzu to continue a game where it was last left off on the console. See [Dumping Save Data from a Switch Console]] for instructions. On a real SD card, the
sysdata folder will also contain the files required to run any Switch titles installed to the SD card. This can be mimicked somewhat by [Dumping Installed Titles and importing them into yuzu’s
sysdata directory but this is unnecessary since yuzu can run them from anywhere on a computer filesystem and doesn’t require the accompanying .tmd and .cmd files.
On a real SD card, there may be two other directories inside
sysdata. These directories are named
0004008c and correspond to downloaded game updates and DLC respectively. The data contained within these directories can be backed up on a computer as decrypted CIA files and installed with yuzu (Dumping Updates and DLCs). The latest version of GodMode9 is required to redump your DLCs if you do not own all them as it was dumped incorrectly before.
This directory contains all of the extra data created when playing Switch game backups. yuzu emulates a console’s behavior of reading from and writing to extra data, so this data can be dumped from an SD card using a physical Switch console and imported into yuzu. See Dumping Extra Data from a Switch Console for instructions.
If a real SD card is compared to yuzu’s emulated SD card, yuzu may appear to be missing one or more folders present on the real SD card:
Nintendo DSiWare. The
dbs folder contains a Switch console’s title database. The
backups folder contains saved data backed up via the Home Menu. The
Nintendo DSiWare folder contains exported DSi exports. yuzu does not need any of these folders so there is currently no value in dumping them.
This directory can contain two files.
shared_font.bin: this was a legacy system font data dumped from old versions of Switchutils and is no longer supported. If the user does not have shared font installed, yuzu will use the open source font replacement instead. Users should redump their shared font since the open source font replacement may not always look accurate. See Dumping System Archives and the Shared Fonts from a Switch Console for more information.
aes_keys.txt: this file is reserved for future use to hold decryption keys.
If you’re wondering what the difference is between SDHC and SDXC memory cards and which one is the best, you aren’t alone. Let’s take a look at what these newer cards have that the usual ones lack and explore the differences between the two cards.
To understand SDHC and SDXC memory cards, you first need to understand SD cards. SD stands for Secure Digital memory card and can be used to store files, pictures, videos, music, and any other data you want to store.
These cards are supported by most devices that store data on memory cards, such as cameras, tablets, smartphones, and PCs (which require compatible card readers). A regular SD card has limited storage capacity, while SDHC and SDXC cards have more storage and can support faster data transfer rates.
- 1 Main Difference Between SDHC vs SDXC
Main Difference Between SDHC vs SDXC
The main differences between SDHC and SDXC are:
- SDXC cards offer up to 2TB of capacity, whereas SDHC cards tend to cap out around only 32GB
- SDHC is compatible with both SDXC devices, whereas SDXC is not reverse compatible with SDHC devices
SDHC – A Primer
SDHC is one of the most-used removable memory cards in cameras and camcorders because of its high-capacity storage. Where the older SD cards have only up to 2GB of storage, SDHC cards have anywhere from 4GB to 32GB. This means you can store more photos and videos with no worries about running out of space. SDHC cards are also compatible with a wide range of cameras and camcorders. Check your device; if it says it’s compatible with SDHC, you can also use SD cards. But if it only says it’s compatible with SD cards, you probably cannot use SDHC cards.
When evaluating memory cards for camera use, users often overlook one component of the SDHC card, and that’s its speed capacity. The memory card’s speed is very important when filming on a high-resolution camera because it ensures that you are able to capture everything smoothly. A slower memory card is likely to become overwhelmed and could potentially not record at all.
SDXC – A Primer
SDXC cards have even higher capacity than SDHC cards. Compared to SDHC cards, SDXC cards start at a higher memory capacity (64GB) and theoretically can go up to 2 Terabytes. This potentially means much longer high-definition videos for camcorder users than SDHC cards can offer.
In addition to the higher memory capacity, SDXC cards also offer higher transfer rates. While the SDHC card’s speed capacity goes only up to 10MBps, the SDXC card has a maximum of 300 MBps. One thing to realize is that speed capacities for either card are categorized into four different classes.
These are Class 2, 4, 6, and 10. Class 2 offers up to 2 MBps, while the other classes offer up to 10 MBps. However, depending on the card’s manufacturer, you may not be able to find the speed class of your card. Still, do check for it when buying a memory card; if you can find it, it can help you make your decision.
Some standard definition cameras may do just fine with a Class 2 card, whether SD of SDHC. However, if your camera is high definition, you’ll want to try to choose a Class 4 or 6 card because they are faster and can better handle the transfer rate of high definition recording. SDXC cards are usually offered to camcorder users because of their faster speed compared to SDHC.
How Does SDHC Format Differ from SD?
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So how does the SDHC card compare to the older SD card? The main difference between the two are the default file formats and the maximum storage capacities. While a standard SD card can store up to 2GB of data and uses FAT16 as its default file format, the SDHC card has a storage capacity of anywhere from 4GB to 32GB and its default file format is FAT32. You can get either type of card in three different sizes: micro SD, mini SD, and full SD. These refer to the physical size of the card.
As for compatibility, standard SD cards are backward compatible but not forward. What this means is that a device that is only SD card compatible will not support an SDHC card (and, obviously, not an SDXC card either), but devices that support SDHC cards can usually also read and write to SD cards. Likewise, an SDHC device will not be able to support an SDXC card, but an SDXC device can usually support an SDHC card as well as an SDXC card.
The other issue that matters is transfer speeds. When you use an SD card with a camcorder it needs to be able to save data as fast as the camcorder can stream it. Higher video resolutions mean more data is streamed per second. Just as with SDHC and SDXC cards, SD cards have speed class ratings of 2, 4, 6, and 10. SDHC and SDXC cards also have a speed class of 1, which is also called Ultra High-Speed Data Transfer. This is the fastest class and is not available with standard SD cards.
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Which Memory Card Is Right for You?
There’s more to choosing a memory card than just buying the one with the most storage. You may not need an 8GB card! One of the things you should consider is the type of photography you are planning to use the card for. For example, will you be doing sports photography where you need to take hundreds of photos rapidly? Or will you be doing another type of photography where you only need to take a few shots per session?
Also, how much time will pass between taking photos and downloading them to your computer? If you can’t or won’t download images regularly, you may want to choose a card with a larger capacity. You also may want more than one card to have on hand, because cards (Just like everything else) do malfunction. If you happen to be on location without an extra card, you could lose valuable shots or videos. For this reason, having a few 2GB or 3GB cards may be a better option than having one 8GB card.
Tips for Using Your SDXC or SDHC Memory Card
Regardless of the type of memory card you choose, there are some things you can do to get the most out of your card. First of all, should you have a disaster such as accidentally deleting images or seeing a card error message, stop using the card immediately. You may be able to recover your images. Continue to use the card, and you run the risk of overwriting your other images. There are data recovery tools that may be able to restore your data.
When deleting images, it’s best to do so on your computer, not on your camera. It may surprise you to learn that deleting images from the card while still inside your camera can actually shorten the card’s life. The fewer times you add or remove data, the better. When you erase all your images at one time on your computer you put the card through fewer erase cycles. Alternately, you can use the camera’s format function each time to wipe the card and start clean.
Periodically reformatting your card is a good idea. Every now and then reformat it to wipe images, file names, and any other data to start over clean. Of course, be sure you’ve downloaded any images you want to keep before you do this! When you format the card, do so with it in the camera you want to use it with. This helps ensure that the card is formatted specifically for your camera. While you’re at it, you should replace your card occasionally anyway; memory cards do not last forever and updated now and then will give you the best results. Fortunately prices have been coming down, so this isn’t as difficult as it used to be. You should also keep your camera up to date.
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In using your card, switching your camera off before you remove the card is a good idea. Also don’t let your camera’s batteries die completely; keep an eye on their charge to prevent the camera from shutting down in the middle of writing an image to your card. And keep in mind that your camera may need time to write all the data when you shoot in burst mode, so don’t turn it off too quickly when you’re done shooting. This isn’t a problem with some newer cameras, which will continue buffering after they are turned off, but it’s a good idea to be safe rather than sorry.
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Finally, take some common sense steps to care for your cards. Keep them clean and dry, and don’t expose them to temperature extremes. Do not drop them, bend them, puncture them, or expose them to h3 electro-magnetic currents. Store unused cards inside plastic bags for added protection. Following these tips can help you get the most out of your memory card, whether you decide that an SD, SDHC, or SDXC card is right for you.