Realtek SCSI & RAID Devices Driver

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Updates to the firmware on an NVMe storage device are issued to the miniport driver for that device. Function commands for getting firmware information, downloading, and activating firmware images are issued to the miniport.

Firmware upgrade process

NVMe devices certified for Windows are capable of updating their firmware while the device is in operation. Firmware is updated using the IOCTL_SCSI_MINIPORT request containing with the associated firmware control data formatted in an SRB. The update process involves:

  1. Gather the firmware slot information to determine where to place the update. There are a few considerations in deciding where the firmware update will reside.

    • How many slots are available?
    • How many slots can hold an update? Some slots are read-only or hold images that must be retained if the ability to revert to a prior image is desired.
    • Which slot contains the current active firmware image (the running firmware)?

    In order to update the device, a slot is chosen that is writeable and not currently active. All existing image data in the selected slot is overwritten when the update is completed.

  2. Download the new firmware image for a selected slot. Depending on the size of the image, this occurs in a single transfer operation or in successive transfers of multiple portions of the image. A portion of an image is limited by min(Controller Maximum Transfer Size, 512 KB).

  3. In order to make the downloaded image the active firmware image, it is assigned to slot. The active firmware slot is then switched from the currently used slot to the slot assigned to the downloaded image. Depending on the type of download and the changes in the firmware image, a reboot of the system may be required. This is determined by the NVMe controller.

Miniport firmware control requests

Each function command is set in a FIRMWARE_REQUEST_BLOCK structure which is included with an SRB_IO_CONTROL in the buffer of an IOCTL_SCSI_MINIPORT request. The ControlCode member of SRB_IO_CONTROL is set to IOCTL_SCSI_MINIPORT_FIRMWARE to indicate a miniport firmware operation. Each function command has a related information structure located after the FIRMWARE_REQUEST_BLOCK. The following table lists each function command and the structures included in the system buffer for IOCTL_SCSI_MINIPORT.

FunctionInput dataOutput data

















  • The need to install Windows from a bootable USB flash drive arises quite often, and, probably, many, faced the problem of the lack of network and WIFI drivers to access the Internet when you first start Windows after installation.
  • Following your advice does not resolve this issue. We're running into this problem with our network driver on our Lenovo H430 PC. My specific problem is my network adapter, made by RealTek, driver is not migrating. It seems to be related to the November Creators Update from Microsoft. That is the timeframe when the issue cropped up.

The firmware functions and associated structures are defined in ntddscsi.h.

Firmware slot information

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Firmware images are maintained on the device in locations called slots. It is necessary to find an available slot for the firmware image to reside when it is activated after a download. To find an available slot, an upgrade utility can send an information query to the device to receive the slot information descriptors. The following example function shows how to retrieve the information for all the firmware slots on a selected NVMe device.

Slot information is returned in an array of STORAGE_FIRMWARE_SLOT_INFO structures. Each structure indicates the activation status and availability of the firmware slot. Conditions for availability are:

  • The ReadOnly member is set to 0.
  • The slot is not the active slot indicated by slot number in the ActiveSlot member of STORAGE_FIRMWARE_INFO.
  • The PendingActiveSlot member of STORAGE_FIRMWARE_INFO is not set to the desired slot.

Also, if the slot status meets the conditions for availability but the Info string contains valid revision data, that is nonzero bytes, then the slot contains a valid firmware image but it may be replaced. All zeros in the Info string indicate an empty slot.

Example: Firmware upgrade - slot selection, download, and activation

An upgrade utility will perform the three steps mentioned earlier to update the firmware in the controller. As an example, the following upgrade routine contains code for each step in the process. The slot discovery step, shown in the DeviceGetFirmwareInfo example, is called by the upgrade routine to select an available slot. The image download and activation steps are demonstrated directly following slot selection. Within each step, the use of the corresponding function command is shown.

During the download step, a firmware image file is read into an allocated buffer and the buffer contents are transferred to the controller. If the firmware image file is larger than the size of the buffer, the image file is read multiple times and that portion of the firmware image is transferred until the entire file is read.

Following the completion of the firmware image download, the activation step requires two actions from the controller. First, the selected slot is assigned to the firmware image, and second, the selected slot is set as the active slot.

Note Downloading multiple firmware images simultaneously is not supported. A single firmware download is always followed by a single firmware activation.

A firmware image already resident in a slot can be reactivated by using just the activate function command with the corresponding slot number.

The IOCTL_SCSI_MINIPORT_FIRMWARE control code for SRB I/O control is available starting with Windows 8.1.

[German]Some Windows 10 users are facing a nasty problem. After upgrading from a previous Windows to Windows 10, some devices are not working. Device manager is showing a ‘Device not migrated’ message.


Many users seems to be affected

This issue has been observed from many users after upgrading to Windows 10. Some devices won’t work anymore. Checking the device’s properties (open device manager and double click the device branch) shows the message ‘Device not migrated’ on Events tab.

Some users are reporting also error 0xC0000719. This error code stands for STATUS_CONTEXT_MISMATCH, the context doesn’t match with the destination. Something went terrible wrong during driver installation. Browsing the web shows that many people are affected (see this MS Answers forum thread). Here are more forum post about that issue.

It seems that all systems are upgrades to Windows 10 so far.

What does ‘Device not migrated’ means?

After I came across this issue, I’m asking me, what this error message means? But I hasn’t found an explanation on Microsoft’s web sites so far. So I tried to find an explanation by myself. Loading a driver requires several steps, that will be reported on device manager’s event tab.


First I have had a look at one of my Windows 10 test machines running since several months (it has been updated from Version 1511 to Version 1607, as far as I remember). The screenshot above shows the Event tab of a device on my German Windows 10. There is a notification, that the device has been migrated successfully. Inspecting device manager’s tab Events from a fresh installed Windows 10 in a VM doesn’t shows this notification (see screenshot below).

And on machines with this device issue we will see the message ‘Device not migrated’, as it is shown in the screenshot below.

That brought me to the conclusion, that this error has something to do, how drivers are migrated from old Windows to Windows 10. Obviously something went wrong during this process. I found an old Microsoft document dealing with Windows Vista, where Microsoft discusses, how to migrate PnP drivers from Windows XP to Windows Vista.

(Source: Microsoft)

Even, if this description is based on Windows Vista, I guess we may assume that Windows 10 setup uses similar approaches. So lets see the Microsoft description about driver migration obtained from the document linked above.

Realtek SCSI & RAID Devices Driver

PnP Driver Migration Collector

The collection criteria described in this section is applied during the phase described in the block “Windows XP” in Figure 1 earlier in this paper.

Criteria for Driver Packages

The Plug and Play (PnP) Driver Migration Collector starts running during Setup to collect driver packages that meet the following conditions:

  • Driver is published as OEMn.inf in the %windir%inf directory. All third-party drivers that are installed through supported Plug and Play mechanisms have INFs published and renamed in this manner.
  • INF file for the driver package has a [Manufacturer] section and installs on a Plug and Play Device ID. This ensures that a Plug and Play Device ID is being migrated. Non-Plug and Play drivers migrate by way of other mechanisms.
  • Driver package contains all the required files for the device for which the driver is being migrated.
  • Driver package is installed on a device or phantom device. A phantom device has a driver installed but the device is not currently present, such as an unplugged USB peripheral device. Drivers that have been uninstalled or replaced by an updated driver are not migrated.

Packages Not Migrated

The following Plug and Play device driver packages are not migrated:

  • Printer class Plug and Play device drivers, because of compatibility concerns
  • Windows XP inbox drivers
  • Individual drivers that have been flagged as being incompatible or causing instability in Windows Vista.
  • Driver packages with corrupt or missing files

A PnP Driver Migration Collector tries during upgrade to migrate drivers using the .inf description. And there are cases mentioned, where driver could not migrated.

Afterward I inspected a Windows 10 test machine that has been used for a while, and I found for each driver the “Device migrated” message in events. So I assume, that each feature upgrade and probably some cumulative updates are using a driver migration approach.

And if a device couldn’t be identified correctly, or if a driver is flagged incompatible, or if the driver package is damaged, the message ‘Device could not migrated’ will be shown on Events tab. Here are some hints how to fix this behavior.

Fix #1: Check Windows

I would recommend to check Windows for damages first. The steps has been described within my blog post Check and repair Windows system files and component store. Only if no errors were reported, you should proceed with the steps below. I recommend also to do a complete restart (press shift key during selecting “Restart Windows” command).

Fix #2: Reset your BIOS settings, update your BIOS

In some cases wrong BIOS settings prevent PNP Driver Migration Collector to identify a device. Within this forum post somebody wrote, resetting BIOS to default could help identifying the devices. Also it’s a good idea to check, whether the BIOS is up to date or if a new BIOS version is offered to fix some bugs.

Fix #3: Update you chipset drivers

If Windows setup installs a chipset driver that isn’t optimized for the main board, it could be possible, that hardware isn’t detected in a proper way. So head over to your vendors site and check, whether there is an update chipset driver for your mainboard.

Fix #4: Uninstall the device driver

If a device shows the error “Device is not migrated”, it can be caused by damaged or non compatible drivers. Also, some users are using third party tools to update their drivers (which can cause such conflicts, and isn’t recommended).

1. Launch device manager (via Windows+X and the quick start menu, see also) and search for the not migrated device entry.

2. Double click the device entry and go to Driver tab.

Realtek Scsi & Raid Devices Driver Windows 10

3. Click to Disable button and then to Enable. If that doesn’t help, try to reboot between disabling and enabling the device.

If disabling and re-enabling a driver won’t help, use the Uninstall button. If a dialog box asks to delete the drivers, check the checkbox for deleting the driver files from Windows driver store.

Reboot Windows after uninstalling the driver and then let device manager search for new device drivers. If the device driver isn’t offered via Windows Update, visit the vendors web site and check, if new drivers for a device are offered. In this case download and install the new driver.

Fix #5: For USB devices and hard disks

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If an USB device can’t be migrated, try several USB ports. Sometimes also a faulty USB driver from another device can block other USB device drivers. Search in device manager for ‘USB controller’ and deactivate or uninstall this controller driver (as it is shown in Fix #4). Restart Windows and let the operating system search for new drivers.

For (USB) disks I found a comment, that an non initialized new hard disk or a wrong formatted device can cause this error. So check in device manager, if the disk is online (initialized) and try to reformat the logical volumes. Then assign, if necessary a drive letter.

In worst case you will end in a situation, that there is no Windows 10 device driver. If a fresh Windows 10 install doesn’t helps, you have to go back to your previous Windows 7 or Windows 8.1 or deactivate the device.

Realtek SCSI & RAID Devices Driver

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