Drivers Pluto

  

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1.1 General Info

The Pluto-P is an inexpensive ($60) FPGA board featuring the ACEX1K chip from Altera.

1.1.1 Requirements

1 Pluto-P 1.1 General Info. The Pluto-P is an inexpensive ($60) FPGA board featuring the ACEX1K chip from Altera. 1.1.1 Requirements. A Pluto-P board; An EPP-compatible parallel port, configured for EPP mode in the system BIOS; 1.1.2 Connectors. The Pluto-P board is shipped with the left connector presoldered, with the key in the indicated. Watch 250+ channels of free TV and 1000's of on-demand movies and TV shows. Sposnjak on Aug 20, 2018 Pluto was working nicely on Windows 10 with latest firmware and driver (0.7). Next I installed the Matlab Communication Thing to use it from Matlab. The component installed - again - the driver and when I clicked on the configure button device was not found.

  1. A Pluto-P board
  2. An EPP-compatible parallel port, configured for EPP mode in the system BIOS

1.1.2 Connectors

  • The Pluto-P board is shipped with the left connector presoldered, with the key in the indicated position. The other connectors are unpopulated. There does not seem to be a standard 12-pin IDC connector, but some of the pins of a 16P connector can hang off the board next to QA3/QZ3.
  • The bottom and right connectors are on the same .1' grid, but the left connector is not. If OUT2…OUT9 are not required, a single IDC connector can span the bottom connector and the bottom two rows of the right connector.

1.1.3 Physical Pins

  • Read the ACEX1K datasheet for information about input and output voltage thresholds. The pins are all configured in 'LVTTL/LVCMOS' mode and are generally compatible with 5V TTL logic.
  • Before configuration and after properly exiting emc2, all Pluto-P pins are tristated with weak pull-ups (20kΩ min, 50kΩ max). If the watchdog timer is enabled (the default), these pins are also tristated after an interruption of communication between emc2 and the board. The watchdog timer takes approximately 6.5ms to activate. However, software bugs in the pluto_servo firmware or emc2 can leave the Pluto-P pins in an undefined state.
  • In pwm+dir mode, by default dir is HIGH for negative values and LOW for positive values. To select HIGH for positive values and LOW for negative values, set the corresponding dout-NN-invert parameter TRUE to invert the signal.
  • The index input is triggered on the rising edge. Initial testing has shown that the QZx inputs are particularly noise sensitive, due to being polled every 25ns. Digital filtering has been added to filter pulses shorter than 175ns (seven polling times). Additional external filtering on all input pins, such as a Schmitt buffer or inverter, RC filter, or differential receiver (if applicable) is recommended.
  • The IN1…IN7 pins have 22-ohm series resistors to their associated FPGA pins. No other pins have any sort of protection for out-of-spec voltages or currents. It is up to the integrator to add appropriate isolation and protection. Traditional parallel port optoisolator boards do not work with pluto_servo due to the bidirectional nature of the EPP protocol.

1.1.4 LED

  • When the device is unprogrammed, the LED glows faintly. When the device is programmed, the LED glows according to the duty cycle of PWM0 (LED = UP0xorDOWN0) or STEPGEN0 (LED = STEP0xorDIR0).
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1.1.5 Power

  • A small amount of current may be drawn from VCC. The available current depends on the unregulated DC input to the board. Alternately, regulated +3.3VDC may be supplied to the FPGA through these VCC pins. The required current is not yet known, but is probably around 50mA plus I/O current.
  • The regulator on the Pluto-P board is a low-dropout type. Supplying 5V at the power jack will allow the regulator to work properly.

1.1.6 PC interface

Drivers
  • Only a single pluto_servo or pluto_step board is supported.

1.1.7 Rebuilding the FPGA firmware

The src/hal/drivers/pluto_servo_firmware/ and src/hal/drivers/pluto_step_firmware/ subdirectories contain the Verilog source code plus additional files used by Quartus for the FPGA firmwares. Altera's Quartus II software is required to rebuild the FPGA firmware. To rebuild the firmware from the .hdl and other source files, open the .qpf file and press CTRL-L. Then, recompile emc2.

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Like the HAL hardware driver, the FPGA firmware is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

The gratis version of Quartus II runs only on Microsoft Windows, although there is apparently a paid version that runs on Linux.

1.1.8 For more information

Some additional information about it is available from http://www.fpga4fun.com/board_pluto-P.html and from the developer's blog.

1.2 pluto-servo: Hardware PWM and quadrature counting

The pluto_servo system is suitable for control of a 4-axis CNC mill with servo motors, a 3-axis mill with PWM spindle control, a lathe with spindle encoder, etc. The large number of inputs allows a full set of limit switches.

This driver features:

  • 4 quadrature channels with 40MHz sample rate. The counters operate in '4x' mode. The maximum useful quadrature rate is 8191 counts per emc2 servo cycle, or about 8MHz for EMC2's default 1ms servo rate.
  • 4 PWM channels, 'up/down' or 'pwm+dir' style. 4095 duty cycles from -100% to +100%, including 0%. The PWM period is approximately 19.5kHz (40MHz / 2047). A PDM-like mode is also available.
  • 18 digital outputs: 10 dedicated, 8 shared with PWM functions. (Example: A lathe with unidirectional PWM spindle control may use 13 total digital outputs)
  • 20 digital inputs: 8 dedicated, 12 shared with Quadrature functions. (Example: A lathe with index pulse only on the spindle may use 13 total digital inputs)
  • EPP communication with the PC. The EPP communication typically takes around 100uS on machines tested so far, enabling servo rates above 1kHz.

1.2.1 Pinout

UPx
The 'up' (up/down mode) or “pwm” (pwm+direction mode) signal from PWM generator X. May be used as a digital output if the corresponding PWM channel is unused, or the output on the channel is always negative. The corresponding digital output invert may be set to TRUE to make UPx active low rather than active high.
DNx
The 'down' (up/down mode) or “direction” (pwm+direction mode) signal from PWM generator X. May be used as a digital output if the corresponding PWM channel is unused, or the output on the channel is never negative. The corresponding digital ouput invert may be set to TRUE to make DNx active low rather than active high.
QAx, QBx
The A and B signals for Quadrature counter X. May be used as a digital input if the corresponding quadrature channel is unused.
QZx
The Z (index) signal for quadrature counter X. May be used as a digital input if the index feature of the corresponding quadrature channel is unused.
INx
Dedicated digital input #x
OUTx
Dedicated digital output #x
GND
Ground
VCC
+3.3V regulated DC
Figure: Pluto-Servo Pinout
Primary functionAlternate FunctionBehavior if both functions used
UP0PWM0When pwm-0-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the PWM output
OUT10XOR'd with UP0 or PWM0
UP1PWM1When pwm-1-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the PWM output
OUT12XOR'd with UP1 or PWM1
UP2PWM2When pwm-2-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the PWM output
OUT14XOR'd with UP2 or PWM2
UP3PWM3When pwm-3-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the PWM output
OUT16XOR'd with UP3 or PWM3
DN0DIR0When pwm-0-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the DIR output
OUT11XOR'd with DN0 or DIR0
DN1DIR1When pwm-1-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the DIR output
OUT13XOR'd with DN1 or DIR1
DN2DIR2When pwm-2-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the DIR output
OUT15XOR'd with DN2 or DIR2
DN3DIR3When pwm-3-pwmdir is TRUE, this pin is the DIR output
OUT17XOR'd with DN3 or DIR3
QZ0IN8Read same value
QZ1IN9Read same value
QZ2IN10Read same value
QZ3IN11Read same value
QA0IN12Read same value
QA1IN13Read same value
QA2IN14Read same value
QA3IN15Read same value
QB0IN16Read same value
QB1IN17Read same value
QB2IN18Read same value
QB3IN19Read same value
Table: Pluto-Servo Alternate Pin Functions

1.2.2 Input latching and output updating

  • PWM duty cycles for each channel are updated at different times.
  • Digital outputs OUT0 through OUT9 are all updated at the same time. Digital outputs OUT10 through OUT17 are updated at the same time as the pwm function they are shared with.
  • Digital inputs IN0 through IN19 are all latched at the same time.
  • Quadrature positions for each channel are latched at different times.

1.2.3 HAL Functions, Pins and Parameters

A list of all 'loadrt' arguments, HAL function names, pin names and parameter names is in the manual page, pluto_servo.9.

1.2.4 Compatible driver hardware

A schematic for a 2A, 2-axis PWM servo amplifier board is available (http://emergent.unpy.net/projects/01148303608). The L298 H-Bridge (L298 H-bridge) is inexpensive and can easily be used for motors up to 4A (one motor per L298) or up to 2A (two motors per L298) with the supply voltage up to 46V. However, the L298 does not have built-in current limiting, a problem for motors with high stall currents. For higher currents and voltages, some users have reported success with International Rectifier's integrated high-side/low-side drivers. (http://www.cnczone.com/forums/showthread.php?t=25929)

1.3 Pluto-step: 300kHz Hardware Step Generator

Pluto-step is suitable for control of a 3- or 4-axis CNC mill with stepper motors. The large number of inputs allows for a full set of limit switches.

The board features:

  • 4 “step+direction” channels with 312.5kHz maximum step rate, programmable step length, space, and direction change times
  • 14 dedicated digital outputs
  • 16 dedicated digital inputs
  • EPP communuication with the PC

1.3.1 Pinout

STEPx
The “step” (clock) output of stepgen channel x
DIRx
The “direction” output of stepgen channel x
INx
Dedicated digital input #x
OUTx
Dedicated digital output #x
GND
Ground
VCC
+3.3V regulated DC

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While the “extended main connector” has a superset of signals usually found on a Step & Direction DB25 connector--4 step generators, 9 inputs, and 6 general-purpose outputs--the layout on this header is different than the layout of a standard 26-pin ribbon cable to DB25 connector.

1.3.2 Input latching and output updating

  • Step frequencies for each channel are updated at different times.
  • Digital outputs are all updated at the same time.
  • Digital inputs are all latched at the same time.
  • Feedback positions for each channel are latched at different times.

1.3.3 Step Waveform Timings

The firmware and driver enforce step length, space, and direction change times. Timings are rounded up to the next multiple of 1.6μs, with a maximum of 49.6μs. The timings are the same as for the software stepgen component, except that “dirhold” and “dirsetup” have been merged into a single parameter “dirtime” which should be the maximum of the two, and that the same step timings are always applied to all channels.

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Figure: Pluto-Step Timings

1.3.4 HAL Functions, Pins and Parameters

A list of all 'loadrt' arguments, HAL function names, pin names and parameter names is in the manual page, pluto_step.9.

Index

There are different aspects of the software for the ADALM-PLUTO and ADALM2000:

  • device drivers, which allows your PC to properly set up communication between your PC and the actual device, and
  • application code, like MATLAB, Simulink, GNU Radio, iio-oscilloscope (aka osc), or scopy.

To install the drivers, it’s a simple matter of downloading and running the driver installer.

This download should support all of : Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7 Service Pack 1. If you run into issues, please let us know.

At the end, you should see a picture like (either for Pluto or M2k):

Drivers uninstall

From the control panel navigate to Programs and Features. Double click or right click and select Uninstall. Uninstalling the PlutoSDR-M2k-USB-Win-Drivers package will automatically remove the Windows Driver Packages (USBser, WinUSB and Net) shown below as well.

USB Devices

Once the drivers are installed, and the device (Pluto or M2k) is plugged in, the following subsystems should be ready to use:

  • USB Composite Device (The device is a single USB gadget that has the ability to perform more than one function, and needs to be exposed to the operating system as multiple devices)
  • USB Ethernet/RNDIS Gadget (Remote Network Driver Interface Specification (RNDIS) is a Microsoft proprietary protocol used mostly on top of USB. It provides a virtual Ethernet link to most versions of the Windows, Linux and OS X operating systems. To the host, the usb device acts as an external Ethernet card)
  • USB Mass Storage (USB Mass Storage is a set of protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that makes a USB device accessible to any host computing device and enables file transfers between the host and the USB device. To a host, the usb device acts as an external hard drive.)
  • Serial Console (115200-8N1), in this case COM15, but it will be different on your PC.
  • IIO USBD
  • Linux File-Stor Gadget USB Device (which allows the USB mass storage to work properly).

Serial

You need to have find your favorite Terminal program, here are a few of the ones we use (but don’t support – if you have questions, please check with the internet/google).

  • Or other Terminal program

The terminal settings are 115200 baud, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit. This is referred to as 115200-8N1. The default username is root, and the default root password is analog.

Finding the serial port (which constantly changes, every time you plug a device in), is just matter of checking device manager (see above).

Mass Storage

It should be a simple matter of opening the drive, in this case, double click on “D”, to get at the info.html page.

Ethernet

Ethernet Warning

Like most of the network settings on Pluto or the M2k – things are meant to be easy to use. This also means things are inherently insecure.

For example – the root password of Pluto is analog. We post it on the Internet. Think about that for a moment. This could allow anyone with an IP connection to take over the device and use it for malicious purposes.

Never set up a bridge between the Internet and a network connected Pluto with the default images.

Unfortunately – nothing on your host understands the what the IP address of the usb device is. You, the human behind the keyboard need to understand this before any sort of networking will work. There are two main ways to do this:

Determine the IP number

The IP number is set by the device, and can be found by looking inside the ADALM-PLUTO’s mass storage device, and the info.html page. Just lick on the version button at the top of the page:

and then check out the Pluto IP address, and the host IP address.

In this case, the IP address of the PLUTO device is 192.168.2.1 (which is the default for all devices). If you need to change this (if you have multiple devices), please check the customizing Pluto documentation.

Checking from serial port

Open your favourite serial application:

IIO devices

The IIO device shows up in device manager, and allows you to make native IIO connections to the device.

Bringing up a Windows Console should show you something like this: